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Techniques Effecting the LORETA Source Solution

LORETA can be done in a few ways… as a source analysis for the entire EEG or segment being analyzed… or after a decomposition into the ICA components… The later will provide a better estimate of generators of the
individual components which are all blended for the overall LORETA, distorting the sources with other sources. Continue reading →

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Prof. Juri D. Kropotov Interview 2013

Juri speaks about the recent ERP meeting in St Petersburg Russia, held during the summer’s “white nights” when the night sky does not darken fully and the night is very short. Juri is interviewed in his offices, only 200 meters from Pavlov’s famous laboratory.

The discussion of the new methodology of ICA decomposition of the ERP, as well as the benefit of ERP added to the EEG/qEEG is discussed. There is discussion of the diagnostic specificity of the ERP methods, and the concept of biomarkers.

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Medication Failure: EEG/qEEG Findings Provide Evidence

This is the PowerPoint “Medication Failure: EEG/qEEG Findings Provide Evidence” as presented at ISNR Conference Workshop 20 September 21, 2013

Presented by:
Ronald J. Swatzyna, Ph.D., L.C.S.W.
The Tarnow Center for Self-Management
drron@tarnowcenter.com

Vijayan K. Pillai, Ph.D.
The University of Texas at Arlington
pillai@uta.edu

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FDA Approval of EEG Aid for ADHD

There has been a lot of discussion since the FDA announced approving a new medical device just approved to assist in the diagnosis of ADHD in children and adolescents. “The device, the Neuropsychiatric EEG-Based Assessment Aid (NEBA) System, is based on electroencephalogram technology, which records different kinds of electrical impulses given off by neurons in the brain and the number of times the impulses are given off each second. The NEBA System is a 15- to 20-minute noninvasive test that calculates the ratio of two standard brain-wave frequencies, known as theta and beta waves; the ratio has been shown to be higher in children and adolescents with ADHD than in those without it, according to FDA” (http://alert.psychiatricnews.org/2013/07/ fda-approves-device-to-help-diagnose.html). However, the use of this technology to assist in the diagnosis of ADHD is not new.

David Rabiner, Ph.D. (Senior Research Scientist, Duke University) published a report (Attention Research Update April 2001) titled “New Support for the Use of qEEG scanning in Diagnosing ADHD” (http://www.helpforadd.com/2001/april.htm). This report acknowledged utilizing the measure of the ratio of theta to beta waves in the prefrontal cortex as a marker for ADHD (ages 6-20). Therefore the technology is not new, and although the NEBA System is helping to bring scientific evidence into the realm of psychiatric diagnosis, there is more to it then has been discussed thus far. Continue reading →

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Technology Helps Explain Medication Failure

In almost every area of medicine, doctors can order tests to provide objective physical data to guide their medication selection. However, the practice of psychiatry is most often based on observation, self-report and psychological testing. It appears that we are better at measuring impairment than we are at identifying the source and prescribing an effective medication. Is there a way we can do better?

The director of the National Institute of Mental Health, Tomas Insel, suggests there are many medicines, but they are not working adequately. This is because the symptoms of mental illness are too illusive and are shared by many diagnoses. Insel (2012) says, “It’s much harder to fix something if you don’t know what is going wrong.” Medications are being prescribed to treat a set of symptoms suggestive of a specific disorder without any objective evidence of the cause. Additionally, the practice of polypharmacy has become way too common in children and adolescents.

Pharmaceutical industry advertising promotes adding a medication when the first medication fails to produce the desired results (i.e., adding Abilify to your antidepressant). The message is that when one medication fails, keep adding more in an effort to address the additional symptoms. Each additional medication increases the risk of side effects. It is not uncommon for children to come to us with several medications prescribed. Last month, for example, we saw a 9-year-old female with prescriptions for Olanzapine three times a day, Lithium Carbonate daily and Amphetamine Salts three times a day. Also, a 10-year-old male came to us on Focolin three times a day, Seroquel twice a day, Lexipro daily and Zyprexa daily. If there was a way to determine why a medication failed, would it not be prudent to investigate why? If current technology could help? Continue reading →

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Electroencephalography (EEG) Underused Investigative Tool in Hospitals, Study Finds

child eeg Electroencephalography (EEG) Underused Investigative Tool in Hospitals, Study Finds

A retrospective study of patients who had in-hospital electroencephalography (EEG) has established that EEG is a valuable tool that could be deployed more widely to identify treatable causes of impaired consciousness in the hospital setting.

The study is published in the April issue of the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.

Altered mental status (AMS) and paroxysmal spells of uncertain origin are common among hospitalized patients. Impaired consciousness can sometimes be linked to metabolic or cardiac causes, but some of these spells may represent seizures or non-convulsive epilepsy, which can be detected only by electroencephalography (EEG). Although EEG is the key test in making these diagnoses, it is relatively underused in the inpatient setting owing to lack of availability and neurologic consultation at many hospitals in the United States. Continue reading →

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Association between ADHD and intensity of sunlight: Can ADHD be prevented?

kids in sun Association between ADHD and intensity of sunlight: Can ADHD be prevented?

Nijmegen, March 26th, 2013 – A study published today in Biological Psychiatry sheds new light on the increasing rates (prevalence) of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, known as ADHD. Children with ADHD have problems with inattention, distractibility, disorganization, impulsiveness, and overactivity. This study found that “sunny” regions with high solar intensity, such as the US states of California, Arizona, and Colorado, and countries like Spain and Mexico have lower prevalence of ADHD. An apparent protective effect of sunlight accounted for 34-57% of the variance in ADHD prevalence. The authors speculate that this may be related to sunlight’s effects on preventing circadian rhythm (“biological clock”) disturbances. These results suggest ways to prevent or treat ADHD for a substantial sub-group of patients…

Read the article here.

Read the full PDF paper “Geographic Variation in the Prevalence of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: The Sunny Perspective” by Martijn Arns, Kristiaan B. van der Heijden, L. Eugene Arnold, and J. Leon Kenemans.

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National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NHS NICE) has published final guidance recommending the use of brain monitoring technology

The healthcare guidance body NICE (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NHS NICE) has published final guidance recommending the use of brain monitoring technology such as the Bispectral Index (BIS, Covidien), E-Entropy (GE Healthcare) and Narcotrend-Compact M (MT MonitorTechnik GmbH & Co).  These EEG-based depth of anaesthesia monitors should be considered as positive options in patients receiving total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) and in patients who are considered at higher risk of adverse outcomes during any type of general anaesthesia, such as seniors, those with high body mass index, and those with cardiovascular and liver disease.

EEG based Brain Monitoring Systems helps clinicians assess patient consciousness levels through measuring the electrical activity in the brain. This includes patients who are at higher risk of unintended awareness (anesthesia too light) and also those patients who are at higher risk from excessively deep anaesthesia.

Superior surgical outcomes, the low cost of the testing and the ease of use of these technologies all contribute to the recommendations.

You can access these documents through ASET (www.ASET.org)

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Move up to modern de-artifacting

There is an on-going dispute regarding de-artifacting methods used in qEEG.  Though there are vested interests counseling against the use of modern techniques to remove artifact while leaving the underlying EEG intact, there are also those who have specialized in the area that can provide a detailed reply to the vested interests.  Just such a reply was posted recently in a commercial list server, and we got the author’s permission to re-post the discussion on the qEEGSupport.com website in a non-commercial publicly accessible form for all to see.

It specifically points to the fact that the phase changes seen are due to removal of artifact, not the distortion of the underlying EEG, which has residual subtle artifacts remaining if processed with classical approaches.

If you cut time segments out of the EEG to remove artifacts, you also remove the underlying connectivity information, splicing discontinuous microstates together destroys the underlying time series.

In the give and take of the real world of neuroscience, the need to provide a valid time-series showing the connectivity of the neural networks, yet free of artifact, is driving the need to switch to more modern techniques than snipping out segments of time.  If you want to distort the timeline of the EEG (phase) just cut and paste lots of EEG together in one second chunks.

The neuroscience community will undoubtedly continue to discuss these issues, but the need for clean valid EEG is driving the field to these newer techniques, and they are performing well under the scrutiny.

Jay Gunkelman Continue reading →

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EEG Complexity as a Biomarker for Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk

William Bosl1,2*, Adrienne Tierney3,4, Helen Tager-Flusberg5, Charles Nelson1,4

Abstract


Background: Complex neurodevelopmental disorders may be characterized by subtle brain function signatures early in life before behavioral symptoms are apparent. Such endophenotypes may be measurable biomarkers for later cognitive impairments. The nonlinear complexity of electroencephalography (EEG) signals is believed to contain information about the architecture of the neural networks in the brain on many scales. Early detection of abnormalities in EEG signals may be an early biomarker for developmental cognitive disorders. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the modified multiscale entropy (mMSE) computed on the basis of resting state EEG data can be used as a biomarker of normal brain development and distinguish typically developing children from a group of infants at high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), defined on the basis of an older sibling with ASD.
Methods: Using mMSE as a feature vector, a multiclass support vector machine algorithm was used to classify typically developing and high-risk groups. Classification was computed separately within each age group from 6 to 24 months.

Continue reading →

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